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The Libertines !

In United States history, a free Negro or free black was the legal status, in the geographic area of the United States, of blacks who were not slaves.

This term was in use before the independence of the Thirteen Colonies and elsewhere in British North America, until the abolition of slavery in the United States in December 1865, which rendered the term unnecessary.

Racial segregation is the systemic separation of people into racial or other ethnic groups in daily life. It may apply to activities such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a public toilet, attending school, going to the movies, riding on a bus, or in the rental or purchase of a home[1] or of hotel rooms. Segregation is defined by the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance as “the act by which a (natural or legal) person separates other persons on the basis of one of the enumerated grounds without an objective and reasonable justification, in conformity with the proposed definition of discrimination. As a result, the voluntary act of separating oneself from other people on the basis of one of the enumerated grounds does not constitute segregation gender  According to the UN Forum on Minority Issues, “The creation and development of classes and schools providing education in minority languages should not be considered impermissible segregation, if the assignment to such classes and schools is of a voluntary nature“.

Racial segregation is generally outlawed, but may exist de facto through social norms, even when there is no strong individual preference for it, as suggested by Thomas Schelling‘s models of segregation and subsequent work.[4] Segregation may be maintained by means ranging from discrimination in hiring and in the rental and sale of housing to certain races to vigilante violence (such as lynchings). Generally, a situation that arises when members of different races mutually prefer to associate and do business with members of their own race would usually be described as separation or de facto separation of the races rather than segregation. In the United States, segregation was mandated by law in some states and came with anti-miscegenation laws(prohibitions against interracial marriage).[5]Segregation, however, often allowed close contact in hierarchical situations, such as allowing a person of one race to work as a servant for a member of another race. Segregation can involve spatial separation of the races, and mandatory use of different institutions, such as schools .

100 African Americans in history .

  1. Hank Aaron
  2. Ira Aldridge
  3. Muhammad Ali
  4. Richard Allen
  5. Marian Anderson
  6. Maya Angelou
  7. Arthur Ashe
  8. Crispus Attucks
  9. James Baldwin
  10. Benjamin Banneker
  11. Amiri Baraka
  12. Romare Bearden
  13. Mary McLeod Bethune
  14. Guion Bluford
  15. Arna Bontemps
  16. Edward W. Brooke
  17. Gwendolyn Brooks
  18. Blanche K. Bruce
  19. Ralph Bunche
  20. George Washington Carver
  21. Shirley Chisholm
  22. Kenneth B. Clark
  23. John Henrik Clarke
  24. John Coltrane
  25. Bill Cosby
  26. Alexander Crummell
  27. Countee Cullen
  28. Benjamin O. Davis, Jr.
  29. Martin R. Delany
  30. Frederick Douglass
  31. Charles Drew
  32. W. E. B. Du Bois
  33. Paul Laurence Dunbar
  34. Katherine Dunham
  35. Duke Ellington
  36. James Forten
  37. John Hope Franklin
  38. Henry Highland Garnet
  39. Marcus Garvey
  40. Prince Hall
  41. Fannie Lou Hamer
  42. Lorraine Hansberry
  43. Dorothy Height
  44. Matthew Henson
  45. Charles Hamilton Houston
  46. Langston Hughes
  47. Zora Neale Hurston
  48. Jesse Jackson
  49. Mae Jemison
  50. Jack Johnson
  51. James Weldon Johnson
  52. John H. Johnson
  53. Percy Julian
  54. Ernest Just
  55. Maulana Karenga
  56. Martin Luther King, Jr.
  57. Edmonia Lewis
  58. Alain Locke
  59. Joe Louis
  60. Thurgood Marshall
  61. Benjamin E. Mays
  62. Elijah McCoy
  63. Claude McKay
  64. Oscar Micheaux
  65. Dorie Miller
  66. Garrett Morgan
  67. Toni Morrison
  68. Elijah Muhammad
  69. Jesse Owens
  70. Rosa Parks
  71. Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.
  72. Colin Powell
  73. A. Philip Randolph
  74. Hiram Revels
  75. Paul Robeson
  76. Jackie Robinson
  77. John Russwurm
  78. Arturo Schomburg
  79. Benjamin “Pop” Singleton
  80. Mary Church Terrell
  81. William Monroe Trotter
  82. Sojourner Truth
  83. Harriet Tubman
  84. Kwame Ture
  85. Henry McNeal Turner
  86. Nat Turner
  87. David Walker
  88. Madame C. J. Walker
  89. Booker T. Washington
  90. Ida B. Wells-Barnett
  91. Phillis Wheatley
  92. Walter F. White
  93. Roy Wilkins
  94. Daniel Hale Williams
  95. August Wilson
  96. Oprah Winfrey
  97. Tiger Woods
  98. Carter G. Woodson
  99. Richard Wright
  100. ..Malcolm X

“I set goals, take control, drink out my own bottle. I make mistakes but learn from every one. And when it’s said and done, I bet this brother be a better one. If I upset you don’t stress; never forget, that God isn’t finished with me yet.”

“Happy are those who dream dreams and are ready to pay the price to make them come true.

2 PAC & Christopher George Latore Wallace, known professionally as The Notorious B.I.G.

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